A Non-Banking Financial Company (NBFC) is a company registered under the Companies Act, 1956 engaged in the business of loans and advances, acquisition of shares/stocks/bonds/debentures/securities issued by Government or local authority or other marketable securities of a like nature, leasing, hire-purchase, insurance business, chit business but does not include any institution whose principal business is that of agriculture activity, industrial activity, purchase or sale of any goods (other than securities) or providing any services and sale/purchase/construction of immovable property.
A non-banking institution which is a company and has principal business of receiving deposits under any scheme or arrangement in one lump sum or installments by way of contributions or in any other manner is also a non-banking financial company (Residuary non-banking company).
Categories of NBFCs
NBFCs are categorized in terms of
- Liabilities into Deposit and Non-Deposit accepting NBFCs,
- Non-Deposit taking NBFCs by their size into systemically important and other non-deposit holding companies (NBFC-NDSI and NBFC-ND) and
- By the kind of activity, they conduct.
Within this broad categorization the different types of NBFCs are as follows:
1. Asset Finance Company (AFC): An AFC is a company which is a financial institution carrying on as its principal business the financing of physical assets supporting productive/economic activity, such as automobiles, tractors, lather machines, generator sets, earthmoving and material handling equipment, moving on own power and general-purpose industrial machines. Principal business for this purpose is defined as aggregate of financing real/physical assets supporting economic activity and income arising therefrom is not less than 60% of its total assets and total income respectively.
2. Investment Company (IC): IC means any company which is a financial institution carrying on as its principal business the acquisition of securities.
3. Loan Company (LC): LC means any company which is a financial institution carrying on as its principal business the providing of finance whether by making loans or advances or otherwise for any activity other than its own but does not include an Asset Finance Company.
4. Infrastructure Finance Company (IFC): IFC is a non-banking finance company a) which deploys at least 75% of its total assets in infrastructure loans, b) has a minimum Net Owned Funds of Rs 300 crore, c) has a minimum credit rating of ‘A ‘or equivalent d) and a CRAR of 15%.
5. Systemically Important Core Investment Company (CIC-ND-SI): CIC-ND-SI is an NBFC carrying on the business of acquisition of shares and securities.
6. Infrastructure Debt Fund – Non- Banking Financial Company (IDF-NBFC): IDF-NBFC is a company registered as NBFC to facilitate the flow of long term debt into infrastructure projects. IDF-NBFC raise resources through issue of Rupee or Dollar denominated bonds of minimum 5-year maturity. Only Infrastructure Finance Companies (IFC) can sponsor IDF-NBFCs.
7. Non-Banking Financial Company – Micro Finance Institution (NBFC-MFI): NBFC-MFI is a non-deposit taking NBFC having not less than 85% of its assets like qualifying assets which satisfy the following criteria:
- loan disbursed by an NBFC-MFI to a borrower with a rural household annual income not exceeding Rs 1,00,000 or urban and semi-urban household income not exceeding Rs 1,60,000;
- loan amount does not exceed Rs 50,000 in the first cycle and Rs 1,00,000 in subsequent cycles;
- total indebtedness of the borrower does not exceed Rs 1,00,000;
- tenure of the loan not to be less than 24 months for loan amount over Rs 15,000 with prepayment without penalty;
- loan to be extended without collateral;
- aggregate amount of loans, given for income generation, is not less than 50 percent of the total loans given by the MFIs;
- loan is repayable on weekly, fortnightly or monthly installments at the choice of the borrower.
8. Non-Banking Financial Company – Factors (NBFC-Factors): NBFC-Factor is a non-deposit taking NBFC engaged in the principal business of factoring. The financial assets in the factoring business should constitute at least 50% of its total assets and its income derived from factoring business should not be less than 50% of its gross income.
9. Mortgage Guarantee Companies (MGC) – MGC are financial institutions for which at least 90% of the business turnover is mortgage guarantee business or at least 90% of the gross income is from mortgage guarantee business and the net owned fund is Rs 100 crore.
10. NBFC- Non-Operative Financial Holding Company (NOFHC) is a financial institution through which promoter/promoter groups will be permitted to set up a new bank. It’s a wholly-owned Non-Operative Financial Holding Company (NOFHC) which will hold the bank as well as all other financial services companies regulated by RBI or other financial sector regulators, to the extent permissible under the applicable regulatory prescriptions.